[YoutubeDL] Honour all --get-* options with --flat-playlist (closes #22493)
[ytdl] / youtube_dl / YoutubeDL.py
1 #!/usr/bin/env python
2 # coding: utf-8
3
4 from __future__ import absolute_import, unicode_literals
5
6 import collections
7 import contextlib
8 import copy
9 import datetime
10 import errno
11 import fileinput
12 import io
13 import itertools
14 import json
15 import locale
16 import operator
17 import os
18 import platform
19 import re
20 import shutil
21 import subprocess
22 import socket
23 import sys
24 import time
25 import tokenize
26 import traceback
27 import random
28
29 from string import ascii_letters
30
31 from .compat import (
32     compat_basestring,
33     compat_cookiejar,
34     compat_get_terminal_size,
35     compat_http_client,
36     compat_kwargs,
37     compat_numeric_types,
38     compat_os_name,
39     compat_str,
40     compat_tokenize_tokenize,
41     compat_urllib_error,
42     compat_urllib_request,
43     compat_urllib_request_DataHandler,
44 )
45 from .utils import (
46     age_restricted,
47     args_to_str,
48     ContentTooShortError,
49     date_from_str,
50     DateRange,
51     DEFAULT_OUTTMPL,
52     determine_ext,
53     determine_protocol,
54     DownloadError,
55     encode_compat_str,
56     encodeFilename,
57     error_to_compat_str,
58     expand_path,
59     ExtractorError,
60     format_bytes,
61     formatSeconds,
62     GeoRestrictedError,
63     int_or_none,
64     ISO3166Utils,
65     locked_file,
66     make_HTTPS_handler,
67     MaxDownloadsReached,
68     orderedSet,
69     PagedList,
70     parse_filesize,
71     PerRequestProxyHandler,
72     platform_name,
73     PostProcessingError,
74     preferredencoding,
75     prepend_extension,
76     register_socks_protocols,
77     render_table,
78     replace_extension,
79     SameFileError,
80     sanitize_filename,
81     sanitize_path,
82     sanitize_url,
83     sanitized_Request,
84     std_headers,
85     str_or_none,
86     subtitles_filename,
87     UnavailableVideoError,
88     url_basename,
89     version_tuple,
90     write_json_file,
91     write_string,
92     YoutubeDLCookieJar,
93     YoutubeDLCookieProcessor,
94     YoutubeDLHandler,
95 )
96 from .cache import Cache
97 from .extractor import get_info_extractor, gen_extractor_classes, _LAZY_LOADER
98 from .extractor.openload import PhantomJSwrapper
99 from .downloader import get_suitable_downloader
100 from .downloader.rtmp import rtmpdump_version
101 from .postprocessor import (
102     FFmpegFixupM3u8PP,
103     FFmpegFixupM4aPP,
104     FFmpegFixupStretchedPP,
105     FFmpegMergerPP,
106     FFmpegPostProcessor,
107     get_postprocessor,
108 )
109 from .version import __version__
110
111 if compat_os_name == 'nt':
112     import ctypes
113
114
115 class YoutubeDL(object):
116     """YoutubeDL class.
117
118     YoutubeDL objects are the ones responsible of downloading the
119     actual video file and writing it to disk if the user has requested
120     it, among some other tasks. In most cases there should be one per
121     program. As, given a video URL, the downloader doesn't know how to
122     extract all the needed information, task that InfoExtractors do, it
123     has to pass the URL to one of them.
124
125     For this, YoutubeDL objects have a method that allows
126     InfoExtractors to be registered in a given order. When it is passed
127     a URL, the YoutubeDL object handles it to the first InfoExtractor it
128     finds that reports being able to handle it. The InfoExtractor extracts
129     all the information about the video or videos the URL refers to, and
130     YoutubeDL process the extracted information, possibly using a File
131     Downloader to download the video.
132
133     YoutubeDL objects accept a lot of parameters. In order not to saturate
134     the object constructor with arguments, it receives a dictionary of
135     options instead. These options are available through the params
136     attribute for the InfoExtractors to use. The YoutubeDL also
137     registers itself as the downloader in charge for the InfoExtractors
138     that are added to it, so this is a "mutual registration".
139
140     Available options:
141
142     username:          Username for authentication purposes.
143     password:          Password for authentication purposes.
144     videopassword:     Password for accessing a video.
145     ap_mso:            Adobe Pass multiple-system operator identifier.
146     ap_username:       Multiple-system operator account username.
147     ap_password:       Multiple-system operator account password.
148     usenetrc:          Use netrc for authentication instead.
149     verbose:           Print additional info to stdout.
150     quiet:             Do not print messages to stdout.
151     no_warnings:       Do not print out anything for warnings.
152     forceurl:          Force printing final URL.
153     forcetitle:        Force printing title.
154     forceid:           Force printing ID.
155     forcethumbnail:    Force printing thumbnail URL.
156     forcedescription:  Force printing description.
157     forcefilename:     Force printing final filename.
158     forceduration:     Force printing duration.
159     forcejson:         Force printing info_dict as JSON.
160     dump_single_json:  Force printing the info_dict of the whole playlist
161                        (or video) as a single JSON line.
162     simulate:          Do not download the video files.
163     format:            Video format code. See options.py for more information.
164     outtmpl:           Template for output names.
165     restrictfilenames: Do not allow "&" and spaces in file names
166     ignoreerrors:      Do not stop on download errors.
167     force_generic_extractor: Force downloader to use the generic extractor
168     nooverwrites:      Prevent overwriting files.
169     playliststart:     Playlist item to start at.
170     playlistend:       Playlist item to end at.
171     playlist_items:    Specific indices of playlist to download.
172     playlistreverse:   Download playlist items in reverse order.
173     playlistrandom:    Download playlist items in random order.
174     matchtitle:        Download only matching titles.
175     rejecttitle:       Reject downloads for matching titles.
176     logger:            Log messages to a logging.Logger instance.
177     logtostderr:       Log messages to stderr instead of stdout.
178     writedescription:  Write the video description to a .description file
179     writeinfojson:     Write the video description to a .info.json file
180     writeannotations:  Write the video annotations to a .annotations.xml file
181     writethumbnail:    Write the thumbnail image to a file
182     write_all_thumbnails:  Write all thumbnail formats to files
183     writesubtitles:    Write the video subtitles to a file
184     writeautomaticsub: Write the automatically generated subtitles to a file
185     allsubtitles:      Downloads all the subtitles of the video
186                        (requires writesubtitles or writeautomaticsub)
187     listsubtitles:     Lists all available subtitles for the video
188     subtitlesformat:   The format code for subtitles
189     subtitleslangs:    List of languages of the subtitles to download
190     keepvideo:         Keep the video file after post-processing
191     daterange:         A DateRange object, download only if the upload_date is in the range.
192     skip_download:     Skip the actual download of the video file
193     cachedir:          Location of the cache files in the filesystem.
194                        False to disable filesystem cache.
195     noplaylist:        Download single video instead of a playlist if in doubt.
196     age_limit:         An integer representing the user's age in years.
197                        Unsuitable videos for the given age are skipped.
198     min_views:         An integer representing the minimum view count the video
199                        must have in order to not be skipped.
200                        Videos without view count information are always
201                        downloaded. None for no limit.
202     max_views:         An integer representing the maximum view count.
203                        Videos that are more popular than that are not
204                        downloaded.
205                        Videos without view count information are always
206                        downloaded. None for no limit.
207     download_archive:  File name of a file where all downloads are recorded.
208                        Videos already present in the file are not downloaded
209                        again.
210     cookiefile:        File name where cookies should be read from and dumped to.
211     nocheckcertificate:Do not verify SSL certificates
212     prefer_insecure:   Use HTTP instead of HTTPS to retrieve information.
213                        At the moment, this is only supported by YouTube.
214     proxy:             URL of the proxy server to use
215     geo_verification_proxy:  URL of the proxy to use for IP address verification
216                        on geo-restricted sites.
217     socket_timeout:    Time to wait for unresponsive hosts, in seconds
218     bidi_workaround:   Work around buggy terminals without bidirectional text
219                        support, using fridibi
220     debug_printtraffic:Print out sent and received HTTP traffic
221     include_ads:       Download ads as well
222     default_search:    Prepend this string if an input url is not valid.
223                        'auto' for elaborate guessing
224     encoding:          Use this encoding instead of the system-specified.
225     extract_flat:      Do not resolve URLs, return the immediate result.
226                        Pass in 'in_playlist' to only show this behavior for
227                        playlist items.
228     postprocessors:    A list of dictionaries, each with an entry
229                        * key:  The name of the postprocessor. See
230                                youtube_dl/postprocessor/__init__.py for a list.
231                        as well as any further keyword arguments for the
232                        postprocessor.
233     progress_hooks:    A list of functions that get called on download
234                        progress, with a dictionary with the entries
235                        * status: One of "downloading", "error", or "finished".
236                                  Check this first and ignore unknown values.
237
238                        If status is one of "downloading", or "finished", the
239                        following properties may also be present:
240                        * filename: The final filename (always present)
241                        * tmpfilename: The filename we're currently writing to
242                        * downloaded_bytes: Bytes on disk
243                        * total_bytes: Size of the whole file, None if unknown
244                        * total_bytes_estimate: Guess of the eventual file size,
245                                                None if unavailable.
246                        * elapsed: The number of seconds since download started.
247                        * eta: The estimated time in seconds, None if unknown
248                        * speed: The download speed in bytes/second, None if
249                                 unknown
250                        * fragment_index: The counter of the currently
251                                          downloaded video fragment.
252                        * fragment_count: The number of fragments (= individual
253                                          files that will be merged)
254
255                        Progress hooks are guaranteed to be called at least once
256                        (with status "finished") if the download is successful.
257     merge_output_format: Extension to use when merging formats.
258     fixup:             Automatically correct known faults of the file.
259                        One of:
260                        - "never": do nothing
261                        - "warn": only emit a warning
262                        - "detect_or_warn": check whether we can do anything
263                                            about it, warn otherwise (default)
264     source_address:    Client-side IP address to bind to.
265     call_home:         Boolean, true iff we are allowed to contact the
266                        youtube-dl servers for debugging.
267     sleep_interval:    Number of seconds to sleep before each download when
268                        used alone or a lower bound of a range for randomized
269                        sleep before each download (minimum possible number
270                        of seconds to sleep) when used along with
271                        max_sleep_interval.
272     max_sleep_interval:Upper bound of a range for randomized sleep before each
273                        download (maximum possible number of seconds to sleep).
274                        Must only be used along with sleep_interval.
275                        Actual sleep time will be a random float from range
276                        [sleep_interval; max_sleep_interval].
277     listformats:       Print an overview of available video formats and exit.
278     list_thumbnails:   Print a table of all thumbnails and exit.
279     match_filter:      A function that gets called with the info_dict of
280                        every video.
281                        If it returns a message, the video is ignored.
282                        If it returns None, the video is downloaded.
283                        match_filter_func in utils.py is one example for this.
284     no_color:          Do not emit color codes in output.
285     geo_bypass:        Bypass geographic restriction via faking X-Forwarded-For
286                        HTTP header
287     geo_bypass_country:
288                        Two-letter ISO 3166-2 country code that will be used for
289                        explicit geographic restriction bypassing via faking
290                        X-Forwarded-For HTTP header
291     geo_bypass_ip_block:
292                        IP range in CIDR notation that will be used similarly to
293                        geo_bypass_country
294
295     The following options determine which downloader is picked:
296     external_downloader: Executable of the external downloader to call.
297                        None or unset for standard (built-in) downloader.
298     hls_prefer_native: Use the native HLS downloader instead of ffmpeg/avconv
299                        if True, otherwise use ffmpeg/avconv if False, otherwise
300                        use downloader suggested by extractor if None.
301
302     The following parameters are not used by YoutubeDL itself, they are used by
303     the downloader (see youtube_dl/downloader/common.py):
304     nopart, updatetime, buffersize, ratelimit, min_filesize, max_filesize, test,
305     noresizebuffer, retries, continuedl, noprogress, consoletitle,
306     xattr_set_filesize, external_downloader_args, hls_use_mpegts,
307     http_chunk_size.
308
309     The following options are used by the post processors:
310     prefer_ffmpeg:     If False, use avconv instead of ffmpeg if both are available,
311                        otherwise prefer ffmpeg.
312     ffmpeg_location:   Location of the ffmpeg/avconv binary; either the path
313                        to the binary or its containing directory.
314     postprocessor_args: A list of additional command-line arguments for the
315                         postprocessor.
316
317     The following options are used by the Youtube extractor:
318     youtube_include_dash_manifest: If True (default), DASH manifests and related
319                         data will be downloaded and processed by extractor.
320                         You can reduce network I/O by disabling it if you don't
321                         care about DASH.
322     """
323
324     _NUMERIC_FIELDS = set((
325         'width', 'height', 'tbr', 'abr', 'asr', 'vbr', 'fps', 'filesize', 'filesize_approx',
326         'timestamp', 'upload_year', 'upload_month', 'upload_day',
327         'duration', 'view_count', 'like_count', 'dislike_count', 'repost_count',
328         'average_rating', 'comment_count', 'age_limit',
329         'start_time', 'end_time',
330         'chapter_number', 'season_number', 'episode_number',
331         'track_number', 'disc_number', 'release_year',
332         'playlist_index',
333     ))
334
335     params = None
336     _ies = []
337     _pps = []
338     _download_retcode = None
339     _num_downloads = None
340     _screen_file = None
341
342     def __init__(self, params=None, auto_init=True):
343         """Create a FileDownloader object with the given options."""
344         if params is None:
345             params = {}
346         self._ies = []
347         self._ies_instances = {}
348         self._pps = []
349         self._progress_hooks = []
350         self._download_retcode = 0
351         self._num_downloads = 0
352         self._screen_file = [sys.stdout, sys.stderr][params.get('logtostderr', False)]
353         self._err_file = sys.stderr
354         self.params = {
355             # Default parameters
356             'nocheckcertificate': False,
357         }
358         self.params.update(params)
359         self.cache = Cache(self)
360
361         def check_deprecated(param, option, suggestion):
362             if self.params.get(param) is not None:
363                 self.report_warning(
364                     '%s is deprecated. Use %s instead.' % (option, suggestion))
365                 return True
366             return False
367
368         if check_deprecated('cn_verification_proxy', '--cn-verification-proxy', '--geo-verification-proxy'):
369             if self.params.get('geo_verification_proxy') is None:
370                 self.params['geo_verification_proxy'] = self.params['cn_verification_proxy']
371
372         check_deprecated('autonumber_size', '--autonumber-size', 'output template with %(autonumber)0Nd, where N in the number of digits')
373         check_deprecated('autonumber', '--auto-number', '-o "%(autonumber)s-%(title)s.%(ext)s"')
374         check_deprecated('usetitle', '--title', '-o "%(title)s-%(id)s.%(ext)s"')
375
376         if params.get('bidi_workaround', False):
377             try:
378                 import pty
379                 master, slave = pty.openpty()
380                 width = compat_get_terminal_size().columns
381                 if width is None:
382                     width_args = []
383                 else:
384                     width_args = ['-w', str(width)]
385                 sp_kwargs = dict(
386                     stdin=subprocess.PIPE,
387                     stdout=slave,
388                     stderr=self._err_file)
389                 try:
390                     self._output_process = subprocess.Popen(
391                         ['bidiv'] + width_args, **sp_kwargs
392                     )
393                 except OSError:
394                     self._output_process = subprocess.Popen(
395                         ['fribidi', '-c', 'UTF-8'] + width_args, **sp_kwargs)
396                 self._output_channel = os.fdopen(master, 'rb')
397             except OSError as ose:
398                 if ose.errno == errno.ENOENT:
399                     self.report_warning('Could not find fribidi executable, ignoring --bidi-workaround . Make sure that  fribidi  is an executable file in one of the directories in your $PATH.')
400                 else:
401                     raise
402
403         if (sys.platform != 'win32'
404                 and sys.getfilesystemencoding() in ['ascii', 'ANSI_X3.4-1968']
405                 and not params.get('restrictfilenames', False)):
406             # Unicode filesystem API will throw errors (#1474, #13027)
407             self.report_warning(
408                 'Assuming --restrict-filenames since file system encoding '
409                 'cannot encode all characters. '
410                 'Set the LC_ALL environment variable to fix this.')
411             self.params['restrictfilenames'] = True
412
413         if isinstance(params.get('outtmpl'), bytes):
414             self.report_warning(
415                 'Parameter outtmpl is bytes, but should be a unicode string. '
416                 'Put  from __future__ import unicode_literals  at the top of your code file or consider switching to Python 3.x.')
417
418         self._setup_opener()
419
420         if auto_init:
421             self.print_debug_header()
422             self.add_default_info_extractors()
423
424         for pp_def_raw in self.params.get('postprocessors', []):
425             pp_class = get_postprocessor(pp_def_raw['key'])
426             pp_def = dict(pp_def_raw)
427             del pp_def['key']
428             pp = pp_class(self, **compat_kwargs(pp_def))
429             self.add_post_processor(pp)
430
431         for ph in self.params.get('progress_hooks', []):
432             self.add_progress_hook(ph)
433
434         register_socks_protocols()
435
436     def warn_if_short_id(self, argv):
437         # short YouTube ID starting with dash?
438         idxs = [
439             i for i, a in enumerate(argv)
440             if re.match(r'^-[0-9A-Za-z_-]{10}$', a)]
441         if idxs:
442             correct_argv = (
443                 ['youtube-dl']
444                 + [a for i, a in enumerate(argv) if i not in idxs]
445                 + ['--'] + [argv[i] for i in idxs]
446             )
447             self.report_warning(
448                 'Long argument string detected. '
449                 'Use -- to separate parameters and URLs, like this:\n%s\n' %
450                 args_to_str(correct_argv))
451
452     def add_info_extractor(self, ie):
453         """Add an InfoExtractor object to the end of the list."""
454         self._ies.append(ie)
455         if not isinstance(ie, type):
456             self._ies_instances[ie.ie_key()] = ie
457             ie.set_downloader(self)
458
459     def get_info_extractor(self, ie_key):
460         """
461         Get an instance of an IE with name ie_key, it will try to get one from
462         the _ies list, if there's no instance it will create a new one and add
463         it to the extractor list.
464         """
465         ie = self._ies_instances.get(ie_key)
466         if ie is None:
467             ie = get_info_extractor(ie_key)()
468             self.add_info_extractor(ie)
469         return ie
470
471     def add_default_info_extractors(self):
472         """
473         Add the InfoExtractors returned by gen_extractors to the end of the list
474         """
475         for ie in gen_extractor_classes():
476             self.add_info_extractor(ie)
477
478     def add_post_processor(self, pp):
479         """Add a PostProcessor object to the end of the chain."""
480         self._pps.append(pp)
481         pp.set_downloader(self)
482
483     def add_progress_hook(self, ph):
484         """Add the progress hook (currently only for the file downloader)"""
485         self._progress_hooks.append(ph)
486
487     def _bidi_workaround(self, message):
488         if not hasattr(self, '_output_channel'):
489             return message
490
491         assert hasattr(self, '_output_process')
492         assert isinstance(message, compat_str)
493         line_count = message.count('\n') + 1
494         self._output_process.stdin.write((message + '\n').encode('utf-8'))
495         self._output_process.stdin.flush()
496         res = ''.join(self._output_channel.readline().decode('utf-8')
497                       for _ in range(line_count))
498         return res[:-len('\n')]
499
500     def to_screen(self, message, skip_eol=False):
501         """Print message to stdout if not in quiet mode."""
502         return self.to_stdout(message, skip_eol, check_quiet=True)
503
504     def _write_string(self, s, out=None):
505         write_string(s, out=out, encoding=self.params.get('encoding'))
506
507     def to_stdout(self, message, skip_eol=False, check_quiet=False):
508         """Print message to stdout if not in quiet mode."""
509         if self.params.get('logger'):
510             self.params['logger'].debug(message)
511         elif not check_quiet or not self.params.get('quiet', False):
512             message = self._bidi_workaround(message)
513             terminator = ['\n', ''][skip_eol]
514             output = message + terminator
515
516             self._write_string(output, self._screen_file)
517
518     def to_stderr(self, message):
519         """Print message to stderr."""
520         assert isinstance(message, compat_str)
521         if self.params.get('logger'):
522             self.params['logger'].error(message)
523         else:
524             message = self._bidi_workaround(message)
525             output = message + '\n'
526             self._write_string(output, self._err_file)
527
528     def to_console_title(self, message):
529         if not self.params.get('consoletitle', False):
530             return
531         if compat_os_name == 'nt':
532             if ctypes.windll.kernel32.GetConsoleWindow():
533                 # c_wchar_p() might not be necessary if `message` is
534                 # already of type unicode()
535                 ctypes.windll.kernel32.SetConsoleTitleW(ctypes.c_wchar_p(message))
536         elif 'TERM' in os.environ:
537             self._write_string('\033]0;%s\007' % message, self._screen_file)
538
539     def save_console_title(self):
540         if not self.params.get('consoletitle', False):
541             return
542         if self.params.get('simulate', False):
543             return
544         if compat_os_name != 'nt' and 'TERM' in os.environ:
545             # Save the title on stack
546             self._write_string('\033[22;0t', self._screen_file)
547
548     def restore_console_title(self):
549         if not self.params.get('consoletitle', False):
550             return
551         if self.params.get('simulate', False):
552             return
553         if compat_os_name != 'nt' and 'TERM' in os.environ:
554             # Restore the title from stack
555             self._write_string('\033[23;0t', self._screen_file)
556
557     def __enter__(self):
558         self.save_console_title()
559         return self
560
561     def __exit__(self, *args):
562         self.restore_console_title()
563
564         if self.params.get('cookiefile') is not None:
565             self.cookiejar.save(ignore_discard=True, ignore_expires=True)
566
567     def trouble(self, message=None, tb=None):
568         """Determine action to take when a download problem appears.
569
570         Depending on if the downloader has been configured to ignore
571         download errors or not, this method may throw an exception or
572         not when errors are found, after printing the message.
573
574         tb, if given, is additional traceback information.
575         """
576         if message is not None:
577             self.to_stderr(message)
578         if self.params.get('verbose'):
579             if tb is None:
580                 if sys.exc_info()[0]:  # if .trouble has been called from an except block
581                     tb = ''
582                     if hasattr(sys.exc_info()[1], 'exc_info') and sys.exc_info()[1].exc_info[0]:
583                         tb += ''.join(traceback.format_exception(*sys.exc_info()[1].exc_info))
584                     tb += encode_compat_str(traceback.format_exc())
585                 else:
586                     tb_data = traceback.format_list(traceback.extract_stack())
587                     tb = ''.join(tb_data)
588             self.to_stderr(tb)
589         if not self.params.get('ignoreerrors', False):
590             if sys.exc_info()[0] and hasattr(sys.exc_info()[1], 'exc_info') and sys.exc_info()[1].exc_info[0]:
591                 exc_info = sys.exc_info()[1].exc_info
592             else:
593                 exc_info = sys.exc_info()
594             raise DownloadError(message, exc_info)
595         self._download_retcode = 1
596
597     def report_warning(self, message):
598         '''
599         Print the message to stderr, it will be prefixed with 'WARNING:'
600         If stderr is a tty file the 'WARNING:' will be colored
601         '''
602         if self.params.get('logger') is not None:
603             self.params['logger'].warning(message)
604         else:
605             if self.params.get('no_warnings'):
606                 return
607             if not self.params.get('no_color') and self._err_file.isatty() and compat_os_name != 'nt':
608                 _msg_header = '\033[0;33mWARNING:\033[0m'
609             else:
610                 _msg_header = 'WARNING:'
611             warning_message = '%s %s' % (_msg_header, message)
612             self.to_stderr(warning_message)
613
614     def report_error(self, message, tb=None):
615         '''
616         Do the same as trouble, but prefixes the message with 'ERROR:', colored
617         in red if stderr is a tty file.
618         '''
619         if not self.params.get('no_color') and self._err_file.isatty() and compat_os_name != 'nt':
620             _msg_header = '\033[0;31mERROR:\033[0m'
621         else:
622             _msg_header = 'ERROR:'
623         error_message = '%s %s' % (_msg_header, message)
624         self.trouble(error_message, tb)
625
626     def report_file_already_downloaded(self, file_name):
627         """Report file has already been fully downloaded."""
628         try:
629             self.to_screen('[download] %s has already been downloaded' % file_name)
630         except UnicodeEncodeError:
631             self.to_screen('[download] The file has already been downloaded')
632
633     def prepare_filename(self, info_dict):
634         """Generate the output filename."""
635         try:
636             template_dict = dict(info_dict)
637
638             template_dict['epoch'] = int(time.time())
639             autonumber_size = self.params.get('autonumber_size')
640             if autonumber_size is None:
641                 autonumber_size = 5
642             template_dict['autonumber'] = self.params.get('autonumber_start', 1) - 1 + self._num_downloads
643             if template_dict.get('resolution') is None:
644                 if template_dict.get('width') and template_dict.get('height'):
645                     template_dict['resolution'] = '%dx%d' % (template_dict['width'], template_dict['height'])
646                 elif template_dict.get('height'):
647                     template_dict['resolution'] = '%sp' % template_dict['height']
648                 elif template_dict.get('width'):
649                     template_dict['resolution'] = '%dx?' % template_dict['width']
650
651             sanitize = lambda k, v: sanitize_filename(
652                 compat_str(v),
653                 restricted=self.params.get('restrictfilenames'),
654                 is_id=(k == 'id' or k.endswith('_id')))
655             template_dict = dict((k, v if isinstance(v, compat_numeric_types) else sanitize(k, v))
656                                  for k, v in template_dict.items()
657                                  if v is not None and not isinstance(v, (list, tuple, dict)))
658             template_dict = collections.defaultdict(lambda: 'NA', template_dict)
659
660             outtmpl = self.params.get('outtmpl', DEFAULT_OUTTMPL)
661
662             # For fields playlist_index and autonumber convert all occurrences
663             # of %(field)s to %(field)0Nd for backward compatibility
664             field_size_compat_map = {
665                 'playlist_index': len(str(template_dict['n_entries'])),
666                 'autonumber': autonumber_size,
667             }
668             FIELD_SIZE_COMPAT_RE = r'(?<!%)%\((?P<field>autonumber|playlist_index)\)s'
669             mobj = re.search(FIELD_SIZE_COMPAT_RE, outtmpl)
670             if mobj:
671                 outtmpl = re.sub(
672                     FIELD_SIZE_COMPAT_RE,
673                     r'%%(\1)0%dd' % field_size_compat_map[mobj.group('field')],
674                     outtmpl)
675
676             # Missing numeric fields used together with integer presentation types
677             # in format specification will break the argument substitution since
678             # string 'NA' is returned for missing fields. We will patch output
679             # template for missing fields to meet string presentation type.
680             for numeric_field in self._NUMERIC_FIELDS:
681                 if numeric_field not in template_dict:
682                     # As of [1] format syntax is:
683                     #  %[mapping_key][conversion_flags][minimum_width][.precision][length_modifier]type
684                     # 1. https://docs.python.org/2/library/stdtypes.html#string-formatting
685                     FORMAT_RE = r'''(?x)
686                         (?<!%)
687                         %
688                         \({0}\)  # mapping key
689                         (?:[#0\-+ ]+)?  # conversion flags (optional)
690                         (?:\d+)?  # minimum field width (optional)
691                         (?:\.\d+)?  # precision (optional)
692                         [hlL]?  # length modifier (optional)
693                         [diouxXeEfFgGcrs%]  # conversion type
694                     '''
695                     outtmpl = re.sub(
696                         FORMAT_RE.format(numeric_field),
697                         r'%({0})s'.format(numeric_field), outtmpl)
698
699             # expand_path translates '%%' into '%' and '$$' into '$'
700             # correspondingly that is not what we want since we need to keep
701             # '%%' intact for template dict substitution step. Working around
702             # with boundary-alike separator hack.
703             sep = ''.join([random.choice(ascii_letters) for _ in range(32)])
704             outtmpl = outtmpl.replace('%%', '%{0}%'.format(sep)).replace('$$', '${0}$'.format(sep))
705
706             # outtmpl should be expand_path'ed before template dict substitution
707             # because meta fields may contain env variables we don't want to
708             # be expanded. For example, for outtmpl "%(title)s.%(ext)s" and
709             # title "Hello $PATH", we don't want `$PATH` to be expanded.
710             filename = expand_path(outtmpl).replace(sep, '') % template_dict
711
712             # Temporary fix for #4787
713             # 'Treat' all problem characters by passing filename through preferredencoding
714             # to workaround encoding issues with subprocess on python2 @ Windows
715             if sys.version_info < (3, 0) and sys.platform == 'win32':
716                 filename = encodeFilename(filename, True).decode(preferredencoding())
717             return sanitize_path(filename)
718         except ValueError as err:
719             self.report_error('Error in output template: ' + str(err) + ' (encoding: ' + repr(preferredencoding()) + ')')
720             return None
721
722     def _match_entry(self, info_dict, incomplete):
723         """ Returns None iff the file should be downloaded """
724
725         video_title = info_dict.get('title', info_dict.get('id', 'video'))
726         if 'title' in info_dict:
727             # This can happen when we're just evaluating the playlist
728             title = info_dict['title']
729             matchtitle = self.params.get('matchtitle', False)
730             if matchtitle:
731                 if not re.search(matchtitle, title, re.IGNORECASE):
732                     return '"' + title + '" title did not match pattern "' + matchtitle + '"'
733             rejecttitle = self.params.get('rejecttitle', False)
734             if rejecttitle:
735                 if re.search(rejecttitle, title, re.IGNORECASE):
736                     return '"' + title + '" title matched reject pattern "' + rejecttitle + '"'
737         date = info_dict.get('upload_date')
738         if date is not None:
739             dateRange = self.params.get('daterange', DateRange())
740             if date not in dateRange:
741                 return '%s upload date is not in range %s' % (date_from_str(date).isoformat(), dateRange)
742         view_count = info_dict.get('view_count')
743         if view_count is not None:
744             min_views = self.params.get('min_views')
745             if min_views is not None and view_count < min_views:
746                 return 'Skipping %s, because it has not reached minimum view count (%d/%d)' % (video_title, view_count, min_views)
747             max_views = self.params.get('max_views')
748             if max_views is not None and view_count > max_views:
749                 return 'Skipping %s, because it has exceeded the maximum view count (%d/%d)' % (video_title, view_count, max_views)
750         if age_restricted(info_dict.get('age_limit'), self.params.get('age_limit')):
751             return 'Skipping "%s" because it is age restricted' % video_title
752         if self.in_download_archive(info_dict):
753             return '%s has already been recorded in archive' % video_title
754
755         if not incomplete:
756             match_filter = self.params.get('match_filter')
757             if match_filter is not None:
758                 ret = match_filter(info_dict)
759                 if ret is not None:
760                     return ret
761
762         return None
763
764     @staticmethod
765     def add_extra_info(info_dict, extra_info):
766         '''Set the keys from extra_info in info dict if they are missing'''
767         for key, value in extra_info.items():
768             info_dict.setdefault(key, value)
769
770     def extract_info(self, url, download=True, ie_key=None, extra_info={},
771                      process=True, force_generic_extractor=False):
772         '''
773         Returns a list with a dictionary for each video we find.
774         If 'download', also downloads the videos.
775         extra_info is a dict containing the extra values to add to each result
776         '''
777
778         if not ie_key and force_generic_extractor:
779             ie_key = 'Generic'
780
781         if ie_key:
782             ies = [self.get_info_extractor(ie_key)]
783         else:
784             ies = self._ies
785
786         for ie in ies:
787             if not ie.suitable(url):
788                 continue
789
790             ie = self.get_info_extractor(ie.ie_key())
791             if not ie.working():
792                 self.report_warning('The program functionality for this site has been marked as broken, '
793                                     'and will probably not work.')
794
795             try:
796                 ie_result = ie.extract(url)
797                 if ie_result is None:  # Finished already (backwards compatibility; listformats and friends should be moved here)
798                     break
799                 if isinstance(ie_result, list):
800                     # Backwards compatibility: old IE result format
801                     ie_result = {
802                         '_type': 'compat_list',
803                         'entries': ie_result,
804                     }
805                 self.add_default_extra_info(ie_result, ie, url)
806                 if process:
807                     return self.process_ie_result(ie_result, download, extra_info)
808                 else:
809                     return ie_result
810             except GeoRestrictedError as e:
811                 msg = e.msg
812                 if e.countries:
813                     msg += '\nThis video is available in %s.' % ', '.join(
814                         map(ISO3166Utils.short2full, e.countries))
815                 msg += '\nYou might want to use a VPN or a proxy server (with --proxy) to workaround.'
816                 self.report_error(msg)
817                 break
818             except ExtractorError as e:  # An error we somewhat expected
819                 self.report_error(compat_str(e), e.format_traceback())
820                 break
821             except MaxDownloadsReached:
822                 raise
823             except Exception as e:
824                 if self.params.get('ignoreerrors', False):
825                     self.report_error(error_to_compat_str(e), tb=encode_compat_str(traceback.format_exc()))
826                     break
827                 else:
828                     raise
829         else:
830             self.report_error('no suitable InfoExtractor for URL %s' % url)
831
832     def add_default_extra_info(self, ie_result, ie, url):
833         self.add_extra_info(ie_result, {
834             'extractor': ie.IE_NAME,
835             'webpage_url': url,
836             'webpage_url_basename': url_basename(url),
837             'extractor_key': ie.ie_key(),
838         })
839
840     def process_ie_result(self, ie_result, download=True, extra_info={}):
841         """
842         Take the result of the ie(may be modified) and resolve all unresolved
843         references (URLs, playlist items).
844
845         It will also download the videos if 'download'.
846         Returns the resolved ie_result.
847         """
848         result_type = ie_result.get('_type', 'video')
849
850         if result_type in ('url', 'url_transparent'):
851             ie_result['url'] = sanitize_url(ie_result['url'])
852             extract_flat = self.params.get('extract_flat', False)
853             if ((extract_flat == 'in_playlist' and 'playlist' in extra_info)
854                     or extract_flat is True):
855                 self.__forced_printings(
856                     ie_result, self.prepare_filename(ie_result),
857                     incomplete=True)
858                 return ie_result
859
860         if result_type == 'video':
861             self.add_extra_info(ie_result, extra_info)
862             return self.process_video_result(ie_result, download=download)
863         elif result_type == 'url':
864             # We have to add extra_info to the results because it may be
865             # contained in a playlist
866             return self.extract_info(ie_result['url'],
867                                      download,
868                                      ie_key=ie_result.get('ie_key'),
869                                      extra_info=extra_info)
870         elif result_type == 'url_transparent':
871             # Use the information from the embedding page
872             info = self.extract_info(
873                 ie_result['url'], ie_key=ie_result.get('ie_key'),
874                 extra_info=extra_info, download=False, process=False)
875
876             # extract_info may return None when ignoreerrors is enabled and
877             # extraction failed with an error, don't crash and return early
878             # in this case
879             if not info:
880                 return info
881
882             force_properties = dict(
883                 (k, v) for k, v in ie_result.items() if v is not None)
884             for f in ('_type', 'url', 'id', 'extractor', 'extractor_key', 'ie_key'):
885                 if f in force_properties:
886                     del force_properties[f]
887             new_result = info.copy()
888             new_result.update(force_properties)
889
890             # Extracted info may not be a video result (i.e.
891             # info.get('_type', 'video') != video) but rather an url or
892             # url_transparent. In such cases outer metadata (from ie_result)
893             # should be propagated to inner one (info). For this to happen
894             # _type of info should be overridden with url_transparent. This
895             # fixes issue from https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/pull/11163.
896             if new_result.get('_type') == 'url':
897                 new_result['_type'] = 'url_transparent'
898
899             return self.process_ie_result(
900                 new_result, download=download, extra_info=extra_info)
901         elif result_type in ('playlist', 'multi_video'):
902             # We process each entry in the playlist
903             playlist = ie_result.get('title') or ie_result.get('id')
904             self.to_screen('[download] Downloading playlist: %s' % playlist)
905
906             playlist_results = []
907
908             playliststart = self.params.get('playliststart', 1) - 1
909             playlistend = self.params.get('playlistend')
910             # For backwards compatibility, interpret -1 as whole list
911             if playlistend == -1:
912                 playlistend = None
913
914             playlistitems_str = self.params.get('playlist_items')
915             playlistitems = None
916             if playlistitems_str is not None:
917                 def iter_playlistitems(format):
918                     for string_segment in format.split(','):
919                         if '-' in string_segment:
920                             start, end = string_segment.split('-')
921                             for item in range(int(start), int(end) + 1):
922                                 yield int(item)
923                         else:
924                             yield int(string_segment)
925                 playlistitems = orderedSet(iter_playlistitems(playlistitems_str))
926
927             ie_entries = ie_result['entries']
928
929             def make_playlistitems_entries(list_ie_entries):
930                 num_entries = len(list_ie_entries)
931                 return [
932                     list_ie_entries[i - 1] for i in playlistitems
933                     if -num_entries <= i - 1 < num_entries]
934
935             def report_download(num_entries):
936                 self.to_screen(
937                     '[%s] playlist %s: Downloading %d videos' %
938                     (ie_result['extractor'], playlist, num_entries))
939
940             if isinstance(ie_entries, list):
941                 n_all_entries = len(ie_entries)
942                 if playlistitems:
943                     entries = make_playlistitems_entries(ie_entries)
944                 else:
945                     entries = ie_entries[playliststart:playlistend]
946                 n_entries = len(entries)
947                 self.to_screen(
948                     '[%s] playlist %s: Collected %d video ids (downloading %d of them)' %
949                     (ie_result['extractor'], playlist, n_all_entries, n_entries))
950             elif isinstance(ie_entries, PagedList):
951                 if playlistitems:
952                     entries = []
953                     for item in playlistitems:
954                         entries.extend(ie_entries.getslice(
955                             item - 1, item
956                         ))
957                 else:
958                     entries = ie_entries.getslice(
959                         playliststart, playlistend)
960                 n_entries = len(entries)
961                 report_download(n_entries)
962             else:  # iterable
963                 if playlistitems:
964                     entries = make_playlistitems_entries(list(itertools.islice(
965                         ie_entries, 0, max(playlistitems))))
966                 else:
967                     entries = list(itertools.islice(
968                         ie_entries, playliststart, playlistend))
969                 n_entries = len(entries)
970                 report_download(n_entries)
971
972             if self.params.get('playlistreverse', False):
973                 entries = entries[::-1]
974
975             if self.params.get('playlistrandom', False):
976                 random.shuffle(entries)
977
978             x_forwarded_for = ie_result.get('__x_forwarded_for_ip')
979
980             for i, entry in enumerate(entries, 1):
981                 self.to_screen('[download] Downloading video %s of %s' % (i, n_entries))
982                 # This __x_forwarded_for_ip thing is a bit ugly but requires
983                 # minimal changes
984                 if x_forwarded_for:
985                     entry['__x_forwarded_for_ip'] = x_forwarded_for
986                 extra = {
987                     'n_entries': n_entries,
988                     'playlist': playlist,
989                     'playlist_id': ie_result.get('id'),
990                     'playlist_title': ie_result.get('title'),
991                     'playlist_uploader': ie_result.get('uploader'),
992                     'playlist_uploader_id': ie_result.get('uploader_id'),
993                     'playlist_index': i + playliststart,
994                     'extractor': ie_result['extractor'],
995                     'webpage_url': ie_result['webpage_url'],
996                     'webpage_url_basename': url_basename(ie_result['webpage_url']),
997                     'extractor_key': ie_result['extractor_key'],
998                 }
999
1000                 reason = self._match_entry(entry, incomplete=True)
1001                 if reason is not None:
1002                     self.to_screen('[download] ' + reason)
1003                     continue
1004
1005                 entry_result = self.process_ie_result(entry,
1006                                                       download=download,
1007                                                       extra_info=extra)
1008                 playlist_results.append(entry_result)
1009             ie_result['entries'] = playlist_results
1010             self.to_screen('[download] Finished downloading playlist: %s' % playlist)
1011             return ie_result
1012         elif result_type == 'compat_list':
1013             self.report_warning(
1014                 'Extractor %s returned a compat_list result. '
1015                 'It needs to be updated.' % ie_result.get('extractor'))
1016
1017             def _fixup(r):
1018                 self.add_extra_info(
1019                     r,
1020                     {
1021                         'extractor': ie_result['extractor'],
1022                         'webpage_url': ie_result['webpage_url'],
1023                         'webpage_url_basename': url_basename(ie_result['webpage_url']),
1024                         'extractor_key': ie_result['extractor_key'],
1025                     }
1026                 )
1027                 return r
1028             ie_result['entries'] = [
1029                 self.process_ie_result(_fixup(r), download, extra_info)
1030                 for r in ie_result['entries']
1031             ]
1032             return ie_result
1033         else:
1034             raise Exception('Invalid result type: %s' % result_type)
1035
1036     def _build_format_filter(self, filter_spec):
1037         " Returns a function to filter the formats according to the filter_spec "
1038
1039         OPERATORS = {
1040             '<': operator.lt,
1041             '<=': operator.le,
1042             '>': operator.gt,
1043             '>=': operator.ge,
1044             '=': operator.eq,
1045             '!=': operator.ne,
1046         }
1047         operator_rex = re.compile(r'''(?x)\s*
1048             (?P<key>width|height|tbr|abr|vbr|asr|filesize|filesize_approx|fps)
1049             \s*(?P<op>%s)(?P<none_inclusive>\s*\?)?\s*
1050             (?P<value>[0-9.]+(?:[kKmMgGtTpPeEzZyY]i?[Bb]?)?)
1051             $
1052             ''' % '|'.join(map(re.escape, OPERATORS.keys())))
1053         m = operator_rex.search(filter_spec)
1054         if m:
1055             try:
1056                 comparison_value = int(m.group('value'))
1057             except ValueError:
1058                 comparison_value = parse_filesize(m.group('value'))
1059                 if comparison_value is None:
1060                     comparison_value = parse_filesize(m.group('value') + 'B')
1061                 if comparison_value is None:
1062                     raise ValueError(
1063                         'Invalid value %r in format specification %r' % (
1064                             m.group('value'), filter_spec))
1065             op = OPERATORS[m.group('op')]
1066
1067         if not m:
1068             STR_OPERATORS = {
1069                 '=': operator.eq,
1070                 '^=': lambda attr, value: attr.startswith(value),
1071                 '$=': lambda attr, value: attr.endswith(value),
1072                 '*=': lambda attr, value: value in attr,
1073             }
1074             str_operator_rex = re.compile(r'''(?x)
1075                 \s*(?P<key>ext|acodec|vcodec|container|protocol|format_id)
1076                 \s*(?P<negation>!\s*)?(?P<op>%s)(?P<none_inclusive>\s*\?)?
1077                 \s*(?P<value>[a-zA-Z0-9._-]+)
1078                 \s*$
1079                 ''' % '|'.join(map(re.escape, STR_OPERATORS.keys())))
1080             m = str_operator_rex.search(filter_spec)
1081             if m:
1082                 comparison_value = m.group('value')
1083                 str_op = STR_OPERATORS[m.group('op')]
1084                 if m.group('negation'):
1085                     op = lambda attr, value: not str_op(attr, value)
1086                 else:
1087                     op = str_op
1088
1089         if not m:
1090             raise ValueError('Invalid filter specification %r' % filter_spec)
1091
1092         def _filter(f):
1093             actual_value = f.get(m.group('key'))
1094             if actual_value is None:
1095                 return m.group('none_inclusive')
1096             return op(actual_value, comparison_value)
1097         return _filter
1098
1099     def _default_format_spec(self, info_dict, download=True):
1100
1101         def can_merge():
1102             merger = FFmpegMergerPP(self)
1103             return merger.available and merger.can_merge()
1104
1105         def prefer_best():
1106             if self.params.get('simulate', False):
1107                 return False
1108             if not download:
1109                 return False
1110             if self.params.get('outtmpl', DEFAULT_OUTTMPL) == '-':
1111                 return True
1112             if info_dict.get('is_live'):
1113                 return True
1114             if not can_merge():
1115                 return True
1116             return False
1117
1118         req_format_list = ['bestvideo+bestaudio', 'best']
1119         if prefer_best():
1120             req_format_list.reverse()
1121         return '/'.join(req_format_list)
1122
1123     def build_format_selector(self, format_spec):
1124         def syntax_error(note, start):
1125             message = (
1126                 'Invalid format specification: '
1127                 '{0}\n\t{1}\n\t{2}^'.format(note, format_spec, ' ' * start[1]))
1128             return SyntaxError(message)
1129
1130         PICKFIRST = 'PICKFIRST'
1131         MERGE = 'MERGE'
1132         SINGLE = 'SINGLE'
1133         GROUP = 'GROUP'
1134         FormatSelector = collections.namedtuple('FormatSelector', ['type', 'selector', 'filters'])
1135
1136         def _parse_filter(tokens):
1137             filter_parts = []
1138             for type, string, start, _, _ in tokens:
1139                 if type == tokenize.OP and string == ']':
1140                     return ''.join(filter_parts)
1141                 else:
1142                     filter_parts.append(string)
1143
1144         def _remove_unused_ops(tokens):
1145             # Remove operators that we don't use and join them with the surrounding strings
1146             # for example: 'mp4' '-' 'baseline' '-' '16x9' is converted to 'mp4-baseline-16x9'
1147             ALLOWED_OPS = ('/', '+', ',', '(', ')')
1148             last_string, last_start, last_end, last_line = None, None, None, None
1149             for type, string, start, end, line in tokens:
1150                 if type == tokenize.OP and string == '[':
1151                     if last_string:
1152                         yield tokenize.NAME, last_string, last_start, last_end, last_line
1153                         last_string = None
1154                     yield type, string, start, end, line
1155                     # everything inside brackets will be handled by _parse_filter
1156                     for type, string, start, end, line in tokens:
1157                         yield type, string, start, end, line
1158                         if type == tokenize.OP and string == ']':
1159                             break
1160                 elif type == tokenize.OP and string in ALLOWED_OPS:
1161                     if last_string:
1162                         yield tokenize.NAME, last_string, last_start, last_end, last_line
1163                         last_string = None
1164                     yield type, string, start, end, line
1165                 elif type in [tokenize.NAME, tokenize.NUMBER, tokenize.OP]:
1166                     if not last_string:
1167                         last_string = string
1168                         last_start = start
1169                         last_end = end
1170                     else:
1171                         last_string += string
1172             if last_string:
1173                 yield tokenize.NAME, last_string, last_start, last_end, last_line
1174
1175         def _parse_format_selection(tokens, inside_merge=False, inside_choice=False, inside_group=False):
1176             selectors = []
1177             current_selector = None
1178             for type, string, start, _, _ in tokens:
1179                 # ENCODING is only defined in python 3.x
1180                 if type == getattr(tokenize, 'ENCODING', None):
1181                     continue
1182                 elif type in [tokenize.NAME, tokenize.NUMBER]:
1183                     current_selector = FormatSelector(SINGLE, string, [])
1184                 elif type == tokenize.OP:
1185                     if string == ')':
1186                         if not inside_group:
1187                             # ')' will be handled by the parentheses group
1188                             tokens.restore_last_token()
1189                         break
1190                     elif inside_merge and string in ['/', ',']:
1191                         tokens.restore_last_token()
1192                         break
1193                     elif inside_choice and string == ',':
1194                         tokens.restore_last_token()
1195                         break
1196                     elif string == ',':
1197                         if not current_selector:
1198                             raise syntax_error('"," must follow a format selector', start)
1199                         selectors.append(current_selector)
1200                         current_selector = None
1201                     elif string == '/':
1202                         if not current_selector:
1203                             raise syntax_error('"/" must follow a format selector', start)
1204                         first_choice = current_selector
1205                         second_choice = _parse_format_selection(tokens, inside_choice=True)
1206                         current_selector = FormatSelector(PICKFIRST, (first_choice, second_choice), [])
1207                     elif string == '[':
1208                         if not current_selector:
1209                             current_selector = FormatSelector(SINGLE, 'best', [])
1210                         format_filter = _parse_filter(tokens)
1211                         current_selector.filters.append(format_filter)
1212                     elif string == '(':
1213                         if current_selector:
1214                             raise syntax_error('Unexpected "("', start)
1215                         group = _parse_format_selection(tokens, inside_group=True)
1216                         current_selector = FormatSelector(GROUP, group, [])
1217                     elif string == '+':
1218                         video_selector = current_selector
1219                         audio_selector = _parse_format_selection(tokens, inside_merge=True)
1220                         if not video_selector or not audio_selector:
1221                             raise syntax_error('"+" must be between two format selectors', start)
1222                         current_selector = FormatSelector(MERGE, (video_selector, audio_selector), [])
1223                     else:
1224                         raise syntax_error('Operator not recognized: "{0}"'.format(string), start)
1225                 elif type == tokenize.ENDMARKER:
1226                     break
1227             if current_selector:
1228                 selectors.append(current_selector)
1229             return selectors
1230
1231         def _build_selector_function(selector):
1232             if isinstance(selector, list):
1233                 fs = [_build_selector_function(s) for s in selector]
1234
1235                 def selector_function(ctx):
1236                     for f in fs:
1237                         for format in f(ctx):
1238                             yield format
1239                 return selector_function
1240             elif selector.type == GROUP:
1241                 selector_function = _build_selector_function(selector.selector)
1242             elif selector.type == PICKFIRST:
1243                 fs = [_build_selector_function(s) for s in selector.selector]
1244
1245                 def selector_function(ctx):
1246                     for f in fs:
1247                         picked_formats = list(f(ctx))
1248                         if picked_formats:
1249                             return picked_formats
1250                     return []
1251             elif selector.type == SINGLE:
1252                 format_spec = selector.selector
1253
1254                 def selector_function(ctx):
1255                     formats = list(ctx['formats'])
1256                     if not formats:
1257                         return
1258                     if format_spec == 'all':
1259                         for f in formats:
1260                             yield f
1261                     elif format_spec in ['best', 'worst', None]:
1262                         format_idx = 0 if format_spec == 'worst' else -1
1263                         audiovideo_formats = [
1264                             f for f in formats
1265                             if f.get('vcodec') != 'none' and f.get('acodec') != 'none']
1266                         if audiovideo_formats:
1267                             yield audiovideo_formats[format_idx]
1268                         # for extractors with incomplete formats (audio only (soundcloud)
1269                         # or video only (imgur)) we will fallback to best/worst
1270                         # {video,audio}-only format
1271                         elif ctx['incomplete_formats']:
1272                             yield formats[format_idx]
1273                     elif format_spec == 'bestaudio':
1274                         audio_formats = [
1275                             f for f in formats
1276                             if f.get('vcodec') == 'none']
1277                         if audio_formats:
1278                             yield audio_formats[-1]
1279                     elif format_spec == 'worstaudio':
1280                         audio_formats = [
1281                             f for f in formats
1282                             if f.get('vcodec') == 'none']
1283                         if audio_formats:
1284                             yield audio_formats[0]
1285                     elif format_spec == 'bestvideo':
1286                         video_formats = [
1287                             f for f in formats
1288                             if f.get('acodec') == 'none']
1289                         if video_formats:
1290                             yield video_formats[-1]
1291                     elif format_spec == 'worstvideo':
1292                         video_formats = [
1293                             f for f in formats
1294                             if f.get('acodec') == 'none']
1295                         if video_formats:
1296                             yield video_formats[0]
1297                     else:
1298                         extensions = ['mp4', 'flv', 'webm', '3gp', 'm4a', 'mp3', 'ogg', 'aac', 'wav']
1299                         if format_spec in extensions:
1300                             filter_f = lambda f: f['ext'] == format_spec
1301                         else:
1302                             filter_f = lambda f: f['format_id'] == format_spec
1303                         matches = list(filter(filter_f, formats))
1304                         if matches:
1305                             yield matches[-1]
1306             elif selector.type == MERGE:
1307                 def _merge(formats_info):
1308                     format_1, format_2 = [f['format_id'] for f in formats_info]
1309                     # The first format must contain the video and the
1310                     # second the audio
1311                     if formats_info[0].get('vcodec') == 'none':
1312                         self.report_error('The first format must '
1313                                           'contain the video, try using '
1314                                           '"-f %s+%s"' % (format_2, format_1))
1315                         return
1316                     # Formats must be opposite (video+audio)
1317                     if formats_info[0].get('acodec') == 'none' and formats_info[1].get('acodec') == 'none':
1318                         self.report_error(
1319                             'Both formats %s and %s are video-only, you must specify "-f video+audio"'
1320                             % (format_1, format_2))
1321                         return
1322                     output_ext = (
1323                         formats_info[0]['ext']
1324                         if self.params.get('merge_output_format') is None
1325                         else self.params['merge_output_format'])
1326                     return {
1327                         'requested_formats': formats_info,
1328                         'format': '%s+%s' % (formats_info[0].get('format'),
1329                                              formats_info[1].get('format')),
1330                         'format_id': '%s+%s' % (formats_info[0].get('format_id'),
1331                                                 formats_info[1].get('format_id')),
1332                         'width': formats_info[0].get('width'),
1333                         'height': formats_info[0].get('height'),
1334                         'resolution': formats_info[0].get('resolution'),
1335                         'fps': formats_info[0].get('fps'),
1336                         'vcodec': formats_info[0].get('vcodec'),
1337                         'vbr': formats_info[0].get('vbr'),
1338                         'stretched_ratio': formats_info[0].get('stretched_ratio'),
1339                         'acodec': formats_info[1].get('acodec'),
1340                         'abr': formats_info[1].get('abr'),
1341                         'ext': output_ext,
1342                     }
1343                 video_selector, audio_selector = map(_build_selector_function, selector.selector)
1344
1345                 def selector_function(ctx):
1346                     for pair in itertools.product(
1347                             video_selector(copy.deepcopy(ctx)), audio_selector(copy.deepcopy(ctx))):
1348                         yield _merge(pair)
1349
1350             filters = [self._build_format_filter(f) for f in selector.filters]
1351
1352             def final_selector(ctx):
1353                 ctx_copy = copy.deepcopy(ctx)
1354                 for _filter in filters:
1355                     ctx_copy['formats'] = list(filter(_filter, ctx_copy['formats']))
1356                 return selector_function(ctx_copy)
1357             return final_selector
1358
1359         stream = io.BytesIO(format_spec.encode('utf-8'))
1360         try:
1361             tokens = list(_remove_unused_ops(compat_tokenize_tokenize(stream.readline)))
1362         except tokenize.TokenError:
1363             raise syntax_error('Missing closing/opening brackets or parenthesis', (0, len(format_spec)))
1364
1365         class TokenIterator(object):
1366             def __init__(self, tokens):
1367                 self.tokens = tokens
1368                 self.counter = 0
1369
1370             def __iter__(self):
1371                 return self
1372
1373             def __next__(self):
1374                 if self.counter >= len(self.tokens):
1375                     raise StopIteration()
1376                 value = self.tokens[self.counter]
1377                 self.counter += 1
1378                 return value
1379
1380             next = __next__
1381
1382             def restore_last_token(self):
1383                 self.counter -= 1
1384
1385         parsed_selector = _parse_format_selection(iter(TokenIterator(tokens)))
1386         return _build_selector_function(parsed_selector)
1387
1388     def _calc_headers(self, info_dict):
1389         res = std_headers.copy()
1390
1391         add_headers = info_dict.get('http_headers')
1392         if add_headers:
1393             res.update(add_headers)
1394
1395         cookies = self._calc_cookies(info_dict)
1396         if cookies:
1397             res['Cookie'] = cookies
1398
1399         if 'X-Forwarded-For' not in res:
1400             x_forwarded_for_ip = info_dict.get('__x_forwarded_for_ip')
1401             if x_forwarded_for_ip:
1402                 res['X-Forwarded-For'] = x_forwarded_for_ip
1403
1404         return res
1405
1406     def _calc_cookies(self, info_dict):
1407         pr = sanitized_Request(info_dict['url'])
1408         self.cookiejar.add_cookie_header(pr)
1409         return pr.get_header('Cookie')
1410
1411     def process_video_result(self, info_dict, download=True):
1412         assert info_dict.get('_type', 'video') == 'video'
1413
1414         if 'id' not in info_dict:
1415             raise ExtractorError('Missing "id" field in extractor result')
1416         if 'title' not in info_dict:
1417             raise ExtractorError('Missing "title" field in extractor result')
1418
1419         def report_force_conversion(field, field_not, conversion):
1420             self.report_warning(
1421                 '"%s" field is not %s - forcing %s conversion, there is an error in extractor'
1422                 % (field, field_not, conversion))
1423
1424         def sanitize_string_field(info, string_field):
1425             field = info.get(string_field)
1426             if field is None or isinstance(field, compat_str):
1427                 return
1428             report_force_conversion(string_field, 'a string', 'string')
1429             info[string_field] = compat_str(field)
1430
1431         def sanitize_numeric_fields(info):
1432             for numeric_field in self._NUMERIC_FIELDS:
1433                 field = info.get(numeric_field)
1434                 if field is None or isinstance(field, compat_numeric_types):
1435                     continue
1436                 report_force_conversion(numeric_field, 'numeric', 'int')
1437                 info[numeric_field] = int_or_none(field)
1438
1439         sanitize_string_field(info_dict, 'id')
1440         sanitize_numeric_fields(info_dict)
1441
1442         if 'playlist' not in info_dict:
1443             # It isn't part of a playlist
1444             info_dict['playlist'] = None
1445             info_dict['playlist_index'] = None
1446
1447         thumbnails = info_dict.get('thumbnails')
1448         if thumbnails is None:
1449             thumbnail = info_dict.get('thumbnail')
1450             if thumbnail:
1451                 info_dict['thumbnails'] = thumbnails = [{'url': thumbnail}]
1452         if thumbnails:
1453             thumbnails.sort(key=lambda t: (
1454                 t.get('preference') if t.get('preference') is not None else -1,
1455                 t.get('width') if t.get('width') is not None else -1,
1456                 t.get('height') if t.get('height') is not None else -1,
1457                 t.get('id') if t.get('id') is not None else '', t.get('url')))
1458             for i, t in enumerate(thumbnails):
1459                 t['url'] = sanitize_url(t['url'])
1460                 if t.get('width') and t.get('height'):
1461                     t['resolution'] = '%dx%d' % (t['width'], t['height'])
1462                 if t.get('id') is None:
1463                     t['id'] = '%d' % i
1464
1465         if self.params.get('list_thumbnails'):
1466             self.list_thumbnails(info_dict)
1467             return
1468
1469         thumbnail = info_dict.get('thumbnail')
1470         if thumbnail:
1471             info_dict['thumbnail'] = sanitize_url(thumbnail)
1472         elif thumbnails:
1473             info_dict['thumbnail'] = thumbnails[-1]['url']
1474
1475         if 'display_id' not in info_dict and 'id' in info_dict:
1476             info_dict['display_id'] = info_dict['id']
1477
1478         if info_dict.get('upload_date') is None and info_dict.get('timestamp') is not None:
1479             # Working around out-of-range timestamp values (e.g. negative ones on Windows,
1480             # see http://bugs.python.org/issue1646728)
1481             try:
1482                 upload_date = datetime.datetime.utcfromtimestamp(info_dict['timestamp'])
1483                 info_dict['upload_date'] = upload_date.strftime('%Y%m%d')
1484             except (ValueError, OverflowError, OSError):
1485                 pass
1486
1487         # Auto generate title fields corresponding to the *_number fields when missing
1488         # in order to always have clean titles. This is very common for TV series.
1489         for field in ('chapter', 'season', 'episode'):
1490             if info_dict.get('%s_number' % field) is not None and not info_dict.get(field):
1491                 info_dict[field] = '%s %d' % (field.capitalize(), info_dict['%s_number' % field])
1492
1493         for cc_kind in ('subtitles', 'automatic_captions'):
1494             cc = info_dict.get(cc_kind)
1495             if cc:
1496                 for _, subtitle in cc.items():
1497                     for subtitle_format in subtitle:
1498                         if subtitle_format.get('url'):
1499                             subtitle_format['url'] = sanitize_url(subtitle_format['url'])
1500                         if subtitle_format.get('ext') is None:
1501                             subtitle_format['ext'] = determine_ext(subtitle_format['url']).lower()
1502
1503         automatic_captions = info_dict.get('automatic_captions')
1504         subtitles = info_dict.get('subtitles')
1505
1506         if self.params.get('listsubtitles', False):
1507             if 'automatic_captions' in info_dict:
1508                 self.list_subtitles(
1509                     info_dict['id'], automatic_captions, 'automatic captions')
1510             self.list_subtitles(info_dict['id'], subtitles, 'subtitles')
1511             return
1512
1513         info_dict['requested_subtitles'] = self.process_subtitles(
1514             info_dict['id'], subtitles, automatic_captions)
1515
1516         # We now pick which formats have to be downloaded
1517         if info_dict.get('formats') is None:
1518             # There's only one format available
1519             formats = [info_dict]
1520         else:
1521             formats = info_dict['formats']
1522
1523         if not formats:
1524             raise ExtractorError('No video formats found!')
1525
1526         def is_wellformed(f):
1527             url = f.get('url')
1528             if not url:
1529                 self.report_warning(
1530                     '"url" field is missing or empty - skipping format, '
1531                     'there is an error in extractor')
1532                 return False
1533             if isinstance(url, bytes):
1534                 sanitize_string_field(f, 'url')
1535             return True
1536
1537         # Filter out malformed formats for better extraction robustness
1538         formats = list(filter(is_wellformed, formats))
1539
1540         formats_dict = {}
1541
1542         # We check that all the formats have the format and format_id fields
1543         for i, format in enumerate(formats):
1544             sanitize_string_field(format, 'format_id')
1545             sanitize_numeric_fields(format)
1546             format['url'] = sanitize_url(format['url'])
1547             if not format.get('format_id'):
1548                 format['format_id'] = compat_str(i)
1549             else:
1550                 # Sanitize format_id from characters used in format selector expression
1551                 format['format_id'] = re.sub(r'[\s,/+\[\]()]', '_', format['format_id'])
1552             format_id = format['format_id']
1553             if format_id not in formats_dict:
1554                 formats_dict[format_id] = []
1555             formats_dict[format_id].append(format)
1556
1557         # Make sure all formats have unique format_id
1558         for format_id, ambiguous_formats in formats_dict.items():
1559             if len(ambiguous_formats) > 1:
1560                 for i, format in enumerate(ambiguous_formats):
1561                     format['format_id'] = '%s-%d' % (format_id, i)
1562
1563         for i, format in enumerate(formats):
1564             if format.get('format') is None:
1565                 format['format'] = '{id} - {res}{note}'.format(
1566                     id=format['format_id'],
1567                     res=self.format_resolution(format),
1568                     note=' ({0})'.format(format['format_note']) if format.get('format_note') is not None else '',
1569                 )
1570             # Automatically determine file extension if missing
1571             if format.get('ext') is None:
1572                 format['ext'] = determine_ext(format['url']).lower()
1573             # Automatically determine protocol if missing (useful for format
1574             # selection purposes)
1575             if format.get('protocol') is None:
1576                 format['protocol'] = determine_protocol(format)
1577             # Add HTTP headers, so that external programs can use them from the
1578             # json output
1579             full_format_info = info_dict.copy()
1580             full_format_info.update(format)
1581             format['http_headers'] = self._calc_headers(full_format_info)
1582         # Remove private housekeeping stuff
1583         if '__x_forwarded_for_ip' in info_dict:
1584             del info_dict['__x_forwarded_for_ip']
1585
1586         # TODO Central sorting goes here
1587
1588         if formats[0] is not info_dict:
1589             # only set the 'formats' fields if the original info_dict list them
1590             # otherwise we end up with a circular reference, the first (and unique)
1591             # element in the 'formats' field in info_dict is info_dict itself,
1592             # which can't be exported to json
1593             info_dict['formats'] = formats
1594         if self.params.get('listformats'):
1595             self.list_formats(info_dict)
1596             return
1597
1598         req_format = self.params.get('format')
1599         if req_format is None:
1600             req_format = self._default_format_spec(info_dict, download=download)
1601             if self.params.get('verbose'):
1602                 self.to_stdout('[debug] Default format spec: %s' % req_format)
1603
1604         format_selector = self.build_format_selector(req_format)
1605
1606         # While in format selection we may need to have an access to the original
1607         # format set in order to calculate some metrics or do some processing.
1608         # For now we need to be able to guess whether original formats provided
1609         # by extractor are incomplete or not (i.e. whether extractor provides only
1610         # video-only or audio-only formats) for proper formats selection for
1611         # extractors with such incomplete formats (see
1612         # https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/pull/5556).
1613         # Since formats may be filtered during format selection and may not match
1614         # the original formats the results may be incorrect. Thus original formats
1615         # or pre-calculated metrics should be passed to format selection routines
1616         # as well.
1617         # We will pass a context object containing all necessary additional data
1618         # instead of just formats.
1619         # This fixes incorrect format selection issue (see
1620         # https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/10083).
1621         incomplete_formats = (
1622             # All formats are video-only or
1623             all(f.get('vcodec') != 'none' and f.get('acodec') == 'none' for f in formats)
1624             # all formats are audio-only
1625             or all(f.get('vcodec') == 'none' and f.get('acodec') != 'none' for f in formats))
1626
1627         ctx = {
1628             'formats': formats,
1629             'incomplete_formats': incomplete_formats,
1630         }
1631
1632         formats_to_download = list(format_selector(ctx))
1633         if not formats_to_download:
1634             raise ExtractorError('requested format not available',
1635                                  expected=True)
1636
1637         if download:
1638             if len(formats_to_download) > 1:
1639                 self.to_screen('[info] %s: downloading video in %s formats' % (info_dict['id'], len(formats_to_download)))
1640             for format in formats_to_download:
1641                 new_info = dict(info_dict)
1642                 new_info.update(format)
1643                 self.process_info(new_info)
1644         # We update the info dict with the best quality format (backwards compatibility)
1645         info_dict.update(formats_to_download[-1])
1646         return info_dict
1647
1648     def process_subtitles(self, video_id, normal_subtitles, automatic_captions):
1649         """Select the requested subtitles and their format"""
1650         available_subs = {}
1651         if normal_subtitles and self.params.get('writesubtitles'):
1652             available_subs.update(normal_subtitles)
1653         if automatic_captions and self.params.get('writeautomaticsub'):
1654             for lang, cap_info in automatic_captions.items():
1655                 if lang not in available_subs:
1656                     available_subs[lang] = cap_info
1657
1658         if (not self.params.get('writesubtitles') and not
1659                 self.params.get('writeautomaticsub') or not
1660                 available_subs):
1661             return None
1662
1663         if self.params.get('allsubtitles', False):
1664             requested_langs = available_subs.keys()
1665         else:
1666             if self.params.get('subtitleslangs', False):
1667                 requested_langs = self.params.get('subtitleslangs')
1668             elif 'en' in available_subs:
1669                 requested_langs = ['en']
1670             else:
1671                 requested_langs = [list(available_subs.keys())[0]]
1672
1673         formats_query = self.params.get('subtitlesformat', 'best')
1674         formats_preference = formats_query.split('/') if formats_query else []
1675         subs = {}
1676         for lang in requested_langs:
1677             formats = available_subs.get(lang)
1678             if formats is None:
1679                 self.report_warning('%s subtitles not available for %s' % (lang, video_id))
1680                 continue
1681             for ext in formats_preference:
1682                 if ext == 'best':
1683                     f = formats[-1]
1684                     break
1685                 matches = list(filter(lambda f: f['ext'] == ext, formats))
1686                 if matches:
1687                     f = matches[-1]
1688                     break
1689             else:
1690                 f = formats[-1]
1691                 self.report_warning(
1692                     'No subtitle format found matching "%s" for language %s, '
1693                     'using %s' % (formats_query, lang, f['ext']))
1694             subs[lang] = f
1695         return subs
1696
1697     def __forced_printings(self, info_dict, filename, incomplete):
1698         def print_mandatory(field):
1699             if (self.params.get('force%s' % field, False)
1700                     and (not incomplete or info_dict.get(field) is not None)):
1701                 self.to_stdout(info_dict[field])
1702
1703         def print_optional(field):
1704             if (self.params.get('force%s' % field, False)
1705                     and info_dict.get(field) is not None):
1706                 self.to_stdout(info_dict[field])
1707
1708         print_mandatory('title')
1709         print_mandatory('id')
1710         if self.params.get('forceurl', False) and not incomplete:
1711             if info_dict.get('requested_formats') is not None:
1712                 for f in info_dict['requested_formats']:
1713                     self.to_stdout(f['url'] + f.get('play_path', ''))
1714             else:
1715                 # For RTMP URLs, also include the playpath
1716                 self.to_stdout(info_dict['url'] + info_dict.get('play_path', ''))
1717         print_optional('thumbnail')
1718         print_optional('description')
1719         if self.params.get('forcefilename', False) and filename is not None:
1720             self.to_stdout(filename)
1721         if self.params.get('forceduration', False) and info_dict.get('duration') is not None:
1722             self.to_stdout(formatSeconds(info_dict['duration']))
1723         print_mandatory('format')
1724         if self.params.get('forcejson', False):
1725             self.to_stdout(json.dumps(info_dict))
1726
1727     def process_info(self, info_dict):
1728         """Process a single resolved IE result."""
1729
1730         assert info_dict.get('_type', 'video') == 'video'
1731
1732         max_downloads = self.params.get('max_downloads')
1733         if max_downloads is not None:
1734             if self._num_downloads >= int(max_downloads):
1735                 raise MaxDownloadsReached()
1736
1737         # TODO: backward compatibility, to be removed
1738         info_dict['fulltitle'] = info_dict['title']
1739
1740         if 'format' not in info_dict:
1741             info_dict['format'] = info_dict['ext']
1742
1743         reason = self._match_entry(info_dict, incomplete=False)
1744         if reason is not None:
1745             self.to_screen('[download] ' + reason)
1746             return
1747
1748         self._num_downloads += 1
1749
1750         info_dict['_filename'] = filename = self.prepare_filename(info_dict)
1751
1752         # Forced printings
1753         self.__forced_printings(info_dict, filename, incomplete=False)
1754
1755         # Do nothing else if in simulate mode
1756         if self.params.get('simulate', False):
1757             return
1758
1759         if filename is None:
1760             return
1761
1762         def ensure_dir_exists(path):
1763             try:
1764                 dn = os.path.dirname(path)
1765                 if dn and not os.path.exists(dn):
1766                     os.makedirs(dn)
1767                 return True
1768             except (OSError, IOError) as err:
1769                 self.report_error('unable to create directory ' + error_to_compat_str(err))
1770                 return False
1771
1772         if not ensure_dir_exists(sanitize_path(encodeFilename(filename))):
1773             return
1774
1775         if self.params.get('writedescription', False):
1776             descfn = replace_extension(filename, 'description', info_dict.get('ext'))
1777             if self.params.get('nooverwrites', False) and os.path.exists(encodeFilename(descfn)):
1778                 self.to_screen('[info] Video description is already present')
1779             elif info_dict.get('description') is None:
1780                 self.report_warning('There\'s no description to write.')
1781             else:
1782                 try:
1783                     self.to_screen('[info] Writing video description to: ' + descfn)
1784                     with io.open(encodeFilename(descfn), 'w', encoding='utf-8') as descfile:
1785                         descfile.write(info_dict['description'])
1786                 except (OSError, IOError):
1787                     self.report_error('Cannot write description file ' + descfn)
1788                     return
1789
1790         if self.params.get('writeannotations', False):
1791             annofn = replace_extension(filename, 'annotations.xml', info_dict.get('ext'))
1792             if self.params.get('nooverwrites', False) and os.path.exists(encodeFilename(annofn)):
1793                 self.to_screen('[info] Video annotations are already present')
1794             elif not info_dict.get('annotations'):
1795                 self.report_warning('There are no annotations to write.')
1796             else:
1797                 try:
1798                     self.to_screen('[info] Writing video annotations to: ' + annofn)
1799                     with io.open(encodeFilename(annofn), 'w', encoding='utf-8') as annofile:
1800                         annofile.write(info_dict['annotations'])
1801                 except (KeyError, TypeError):
1802                     self.report_warning('There are no annotations to write.')
1803                 except (OSError, IOError):
1804                     self.report_error('Cannot write annotations file: ' + annofn)
1805                     return
1806
1807         subtitles_are_requested = any([self.params.get('writesubtitles', False),
1808                                        self.params.get('writeautomaticsub')])
1809
1810         if subtitles_are_requested and info_dict.get('requested_subtitles'):
1811             # subtitles download errors are already managed as troubles in relevant IE
1812             # that way it will silently go on when used with unsupporting IE
1813             subtitles = info_dict['requested_subtitles']
1814             ie = self.get_info_extractor(info_dict['extractor_key'])
1815             for sub_lang, sub_info in subtitles.items():
1816                 sub_format = sub_info['ext']
1817                 sub_filename = subtitles_filename(filename, sub_lang, sub_format)
1818                 if self.params.get('nooverwrites', False) and os.path.exists(encodeFilename(sub_filename)):
1819                     self.to_screen('[info] Video subtitle %s.%s is already present' % (sub_lang, sub_format))
1820                 else:
1821                     self.to_screen('[info] Writing video subtitles to: ' + sub_filename)
1822                     if sub_info.get('data') is not None:
1823                         try:
1824                             # Use newline='' to prevent conversion of newline characters
1825                             # See https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/10268
1826                             with io.open(encodeFilename(sub_filename), 'w', encoding='utf-8', newline='') as subfile:
1827                                 subfile.write(sub_info['data'])
1828                         except (OSError, IOError):
1829                             self.report_error('Cannot write subtitles file ' + sub_filename)
1830                             return
1831                     else:
1832                         try:
1833                             sub_data = ie._request_webpage(
1834                                 sub_info['url'], info_dict['id'], note=False).read()
1835                             with io.open(encodeFilename(sub_filename), 'wb') as subfile:
1836                                 subfile.write(sub_data)
1837                         except (ExtractorError, IOError, OSError, ValueError) as err:
1838                             self.report_warning('Unable to download subtitle for "%s": %s' %
1839                                                 (sub_lang, error_to_compat_str(err)))
1840                             continue
1841
1842         if self.params.get('writeinfojson', False):
1843             infofn = replace_extension(filename, 'info.json', info_dict.get('ext'))
1844             if self.params.get('nooverwrites', False) and os.path.exists(encodeFilename(infofn)):
1845                 self.to_screen('[info] Video description metadata is already present')
1846             else:
1847                 self.to_screen('[info] Writing video description metadata as JSON to: ' + infofn)
1848                 try:
1849                     write_json_file(self.filter_requested_info(info_dict), infofn)
1850                 except (OSError, IOError):
1851                     self.report_error('Cannot write metadata to JSON file ' + infofn)
1852                     return
1853
1854         self._write_thumbnails(info_dict, filename)
1855
1856         if not self.params.get('skip_download', False):
1857             try:
1858                 def dl(name, info):
1859                     fd = get_suitable_downloader(info, self.params)(self, self.params)
1860                     for ph in self._progress_hooks:
1861                         fd.add_progress_hook(ph)
1862                     if self.params.get('verbose'):
1863                         self.to_stdout('[debug] Invoking downloader on %r' % info.get('url'))
1864                     return fd.download(name, info)
1865
1866                 if info_dict.get('requested_formats') is not None:
1867                     downloaded = []
1868                     success = True
1869                     merger = FFmpegMergerPP(self)
1870                     if not merger.available:
1871                         postprocessors = []
1872                         self.report_warning('You have requested multiple '
1873                                             'formats but ffmpeg or avconv are not installed.'
1874                                             ' The formats won\'t be merged.')
1875                     else:
1876                         postprocessors = [merger]
1877
1878                     def compatible_formats(formats):
1879                         video, audio = formats
1880                         # Check extension
1881                         video_ext, audio_ext = video.get('ext'), audio.get('ext')
1882                         if video_ext and audio_ext:
1883                             COMPATIBLE_EXTS = (
1884                                 ('mp3', 'mp4', 'm4a', 'm4p', 'm4b', 'm4r', 'm4v', 'ismv', 'isma'),
1885                                 ('webm')
1886                             )
1887                             for exts in COMPATIBLE_EXTS:
1888                                 if video_ext in exts and audio_ext in exts:
1889                                     return True
1890                         # TODO: Check acodec/vcodec
1891                         return False
1892
1893                     filename_real_ext = os.path.splitext(filename)[1][1:]
1894                     filename_wo_ext = (
1895                         os.path.splitext(filename)[0]
1896                         if filename_real_ext == info_dict['ext']
1897                         else filename)
1898                     requested_formats = info_dict['requested_formats']
1899                     if self.params.get('merge_output_format') is None and not compatible_formats(requested_formats):
1900                         info_dict['ext'] = 'mkv'
1901                         self.report_warning(
1902                             'Requested formats are incompatible for merge and will be merged into mkv.')
1903                     # Ensure filename always has a correct extension for successful merge
1904                     filename = '%s.%s' % (filename_wo_ext, info_dict['ext'])
1905                     if os.path.exists(encodeFilename(filename)):
1906                         self.to_screen(
1907                             '[download] %s has already been downloaded and '
1908                             'merged' % filename)
1909                     else:
1910                         for f in requested_formats:
1911                             new_info = dict(info_dict)
1912                             new_info.update(f)
1913                             fname = prepend_extension(
1914                                 self.prepare_filename(new_info),
1915                                 'f%s' % f['format_id'], new_info['ext'])
1916                             if not ensure_dir_exists(fname):
1917                                 return
1918                             downloaded.append(fname)
1919                             partial_success = dl(fname, new_info)
1920                             success = success and partial_success
1921                         info_dict['__postprocessors'] = postprocessors
1922                         info_dict['__files_to_merge'] = downloaded
1923                 else:
1924                     # Just a single file
1925                     success = dl(filename, info_dict)
1926             except (compat_urllib_error.URLError, compat_http_client.HTTPException, socket.error) as err:
1927                 self.report_error('unable to download video data: %s' % error_to_compat_str(err))
1928                 return
1929             except (OSError, IOError) as err:
1930                 raise UnavailableVideoError(err)
1931             except (ContentTooShortError, ) as err:
1932                 self.report_error('content too short (expected %s bytes and served %s)' % (err.expected, err.downloaded))
1933                 return
1934
1935             if success and filename != '-':
1936                 # Fixup content
1937                 fixup_policy = self.params.get('fixup')
1938                 if fixup_policy is None:
1939                     fixup_policy = 'detect_or_warn'
1940
1941                 INSTALL_FFMPEG_MESSAGE = 'Install ffmpeg or avconv to fix this automatically.'
1942
1943                 stretched_ratio = info_dict.get('stretched_ratio')
1944                 if stretched_ratio is not None and stretched_ratio != 1:
1945                     if fixup_policy == 'warn':
1946                         self.report_warning('%s: Non-uniform pixel ratio (%s)' % (
1947                             info_dict['id'], stretched_ratio))
1948                     elif fixup_policy == 'detect_or_warn':
1949                         stretched_pp = FFmpegFixupStretchedPP(self)
1950                         if stretched_pp.available:
1951                             info_dict.setdefault('__postprocessors', [])
1952                             info_dict['__postprocessors'].append(stretched_pp)
1953                         else:
1954                             self.report_warning(
1955                                 '%s: Non-uniform pixel ratio (%s). %s'
1956                                 % (info_dict['id'], stretched_ratio, INSTALL_FFMPEG_MESSAGE))
1957                     else:
1958                         assert fixup_policy in ('ignore', 'never')
1959
1960                 if (info_dict.get('requested_formats') is None
1961                         and info_dict.get('container') == 'm4a_dash'):
1962                     if fixup_policy == 'warn':
1963                         self.report_warning(
1964                             '%s: writing DASH m4a. '
1965                             'Only some players support this container.'
1966                             % info_dict['id'])
1967                     elif fixup_policy == 'detect_or_warn':
1968                         fixup_pp = FFmpegFixupM4aPP(self)
1969                         if fixup_pp.available:
1970                             info_dict.setdefault('__postprocessors', [])
1971                             info_dict['__postprocessors'].append(fixup_pp)
1972                         else:
1973                             self.report_warning(
1974                                 '%s: writing DASH m4a. '
1975                                 'Only some players support this container. %s'
1976                                 % (info_dict['id'], INSTALL_FFMPEG_MESSAGE))
1977                     else:
1978                         assert fixup_policy in ('ignore', 'never')
1979
1980                 if (info_dict.get('protocol') == 'm3u8_native'
1981                         or info_dict.get('protocol') == 'm3u8'
1982                         and self.params.get('hls_prefer_native')):
1983                     if fixup_policy == 'warn':
1984                         self.report_warning('%s: malformed AAC bitstream detected.' % (
1985                             info_dict['id']))
1986                     elif fixup_policy == 'detect_or_warn':
1987                         fixup_pp = FFmpegFixupM3u8PP(self)
1988                         if fixup_pp.available:
1989                             info_dict.setdefault('__postprocessors', [])
1990                             info_dict['__postprocessors'].append(fixup_pp)
1991                         else:
1992                             self.report_warning(
1993                                 '%s: malformed AAC bitstream detected. %s'
1994                                 % (info_dict['id'], INSTALL_FFMPEG_MESSAGE))
1995                     else:
1996                         assert fixup_policy in ('ignore', 'never')
1997
1998                 try:
1999                     self.post_process(filename, info_dict)
2000                 except (PostProcessingError) as err:
2001                     self.report_error('postprocessing: %s' % str(err))
2002                     return
2003                 self.record_download_archive(info_dict)
2004
2005     def download(self, url_list):
2006         """Download a given list of URLs."""
2007         outtmpl = self.params.get('outtmpl', DEFAULT_OUTTMPL)
2008         if (len(url_list) > 1
2009                 and outtmpl != '-'
2010                 and '%' not in outtmpl
2011                 and self.params.get('max_downloads') != 1):
2012             raise SameFileError(outtmpl)
2013
2014         for url in url_list:
2015             try:
2016                 # It also downloads the videos
2017                 res = self.extract_info(
2018                     url, force_generic_extractor=self.params.get('force_generic_extractor', False))
2019             except UnavailableVideoError:
2020                 self.report_error('unable to download video')
2021             except MaxDownloadsReached:
2022                 self.to_screen('[info] Maximum number of downloaded files reached.')
2023                 raise
2024             else:
2025                 if self.params.get('dump_single_json', False):
2026                     self.to_stdout(json.dumps(res))
2027
2028         return self._download_retcode
2029
2030     def download_with_info_file(self, info_filename):
2031         with contextlib.closing(fileinput.FileInput(
2032                 [info_filename], mode='r',
2033                 openhook=fileinput.hook_encoded('utf-8'))) as f:
2034             # FileInput doesn't have a read method, we can't call json.load
2035             info = self.filter_requested_info(json.loads('\n'.join(f)))
2036         try:
2037             self.process_ie_result(info, download=True)
2038         except DownloadError:
2039             webpage_url = info.get('webpage_url')
2040             if webpage_url is not None:
2041                 self.report_warning('The info failed to download, trying with "%s"' % webpage_url)
2042                 return self.download([webpage_url])
2043             else:
2044                 raise
2045         return self._download_retcode
2046
2047     @staticmethod
2048     def filter_requested_info(info_dict):
2049         return dict(
2050             (k, v) for k, v in info_dict.items()
2051             if k not in ['requested_formats', 'requested_subtitles'])
2052
2053     def post_process(self, filename, ie_info):
2054         """Run all the postprocessors on the given file."""
2055         info = dict(ie_info)
2056         info['filepath'] = filename
2057         pps_chain = []
2058         if ie_info.get('__postprocessors') is not None:
2059             pps_chain.extend(ie_info['__postprocessors'])
2060         pps_chain.extend(self._pps)
2061         for pp in pps_chain:
2062             files_to_delete = []
2063             try:
2064                 files_to_delete, info = pp.run(info)
2065             except PostProcessingError as e:
2066                 self.report_error(e.msg)
2067             if files_to_delete and not self.params.get('keepvideo', False):
2068                 for old_filename in files_to_delete:
2069                     self.to_screen('Deleting original file %s (pass -k to keep)' % old_filename)
2070                     try:
2071                         os.remove(encodeFilename(old_filename))
2072                     except (IOError, OSError):
2073                         self.report_warning('Unable to remove downloaded original file')
2074
2075     def _make_archive_id(self, info_dict):
2076         video_id = info_dict.get('id')
2077         if not video_id:
2078             return
2079         # Future-proof against any change in case
2080         # and backwards compatibility with prior versions
2081         extractor = info_dict.get('extractor_key') or info_dict.get('ie_key')  # key in a playlist
2082         if extractor is None:
2083             url = str_or_none(info_dict.get('url'))
2084             if not url:
2085                 return
2086             # Try to find matching extractor for the URL and take its ie_key
2087             for ie in self._ies:
2088                 if ie.suitable(url):
2089                     extractor = ie.ie_key()
2090                     break
2091             else:
2092                 return
2093         return extractor.lower() + ' ' + video_id
2094
2095     def in_download_archive(self, info_dict):
2096         fn = self.params.get('download_archive')
2097         if fn is None:
2098             return False
2099
2100         vid_id = self._make_archive_id(info_dict)
2101         if not vid_id:
2102             return False  # Incomplete video information
2103
2104         try:
2105             with locked_file(fn, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as archive_file:
2106                 for line in archive_file:
2107                     if line.strip() == vid_id:
2108                         return True
2109         except IOError as ioe:
2110             if ioe.errno != errno.ENOENT:
2111                 raise
2112         return False
2113
2114     def record_download_archive(self, info_dict):
2115         fn = self.params.get('download_archive')
2116         if fn is None:
2117             return
2118         vid_id = self._make_archive_id(info_dict)
2119         assert vid_id
2120         with locked_file(fn, 'a', encoding='utf-8') as archive_file:
2121             archive_file.write(vid_id + '\n')
2122
2123     @staticmethod
2124     def format_resolution(format, default='unknown'):
2125         if format.get('vcodec') == 'none':
2126             return 'audio only'
2127         if format.get('resolution') is not None:
2128             return format['resolution']
2129         if format.get('height') is not None:
2130             if format.get('width') is not None:
2131                 res = '%sx%s' % (format['width'], format['height'])
2132             else:
2133                 res = '%sp' % format['height']
2134         elif format.get('width') is not None:
2135             res = '%dx?' % format['width']
2136         else:
2137             res = default
2138         return res
2139
2140     def _format_note(self, fdict):
2141         res = ''
2142         if fdict.get('ext') in ['f4f', 'f4m']:
2143             res += '(unsupported) '
2144         if fdict.get('language'):
2145             if res:
2146                 res += ' '
2147             res += '[%s] ' % fdict['language']
2148         if fdict.get('format_note') is not None:
2149             res += fdict['format_note'] + ' '
2150         if fdict.get('tbr') is not None:
2151             res += '%4dk ' % fdict['tbr']
2152         if fdict.get('container') is not None:
2153             if res:
2154                 res += ', '
2155             res += '%s container' % fdict['container']
2156         if (fdict.get('vcodec') is not None
2157                 and fdict.get('vcodec') != 'none'):
2158             if res:
2159                 res += ', '
2160             res += fdict['vcodec']
2161             if fdict.get('vbr') is not None:
2162                 res += '@'
2163         elif fdict.get('vbr') is not None and fdict.get('abr') is not None:
2164             res += 'video@'
2165         if fdict.get('vbr') is not None:
2166             res += '%4dk' % fdict['vbr']
2167         if fdict.get('fps') is not None:
2168             if res:
2169                 res += ', '
2170             res += '%sfps' % fdict['fps']
2171         if fdict.get('acodec') is not None:
2172             if res:
2173                 res += ', '
2174             if fdict['acodec'] == 'none':
2175                 res += 'video only'
2176             else:
2177                 res += '%-5s' % fdict['acodec']
2178         elif fdict.get('abr') is not None:
2179             if res:
2180                 res += ', '
2181             res += 'audio'
2182         if fdict.get('abr') is not None:
2183             res += '@%3dk' % fdict['abr']
2184         if fdict.get('asr') is not None:
2185             res += ' (%5dHz)' % fdict['asr']
2186         if fdict.get('filesize') is not None:
2187             if res:
2188                 res += ', '
2189             res += format_bytes(fdict['filesize'])
2190         elif fdict.get('filesize_approx') is not None:
2191             if res:
2192                 res += ', '
2193             res += '~' + format_bytes(fdict['filesize_approx'])
2194         return res
2195
2196     def list_formats(self, info_dict):
2197         formats = info_dict.get('formats', [info_dict])
2198         table = [
2199             [f['format_id'], f['ext'], self.format_resolution(f), self._format_note(f)]
2200             for f in formats
2201             if f.get('preference') is None or f['preference'] >= -1000]
2202         if len(formats) > 1:
2203             table[-1][-1] += (' ' if table[-1][-1] else '') + '(best)'
2204
2205         header_line = ['format code', 'extension', 'resolution', 'note']
2206         self.to_screen(
2207             '[info] Available formats for %s:\n%s' %
2208             (info_dict['id'], render_table(header_line, table)))
2209
2210     def list_thumbnails(self, info_dict):
2211         thumbnails = info_dict.get('thumbnails')
2212         if not thumbnails:
2213             self.to_screen('[info] No thumbnails present for %s' % info_dict['id'])
2214             return
2215
2216         self.to_screen(
2217             '[info] Thumbnails for %s:' % info_dict['id'])
2218         self.to_screen(render_table(
2219             ['ID', 'width', 'height', 'URL'],
2220             [[t['id'], t.get('width', 'unknown'), t.get('height', 'unknown'), t['url']] for t in thumbnails]))
2221
2222     def list_subtitles(self, video_id, subtitles, name='subtitles'):
2223         if not subtitles:
2224             self.to_screen('%s has no %s' % (video_id, name))
2225             return
2226         self.to_screen(
2227             'Available %s for %s:' % (name, video_id))
2228         self.to_screen(render_table(
2229             ['Language', 'formats'],
2230             [[lang, ', '.join(f['ext'] for f in reversed(formats))]
2231                 for lang, formats in subtitles.items()]))
2232
2233     def urlopen(self, req):
2234         """ Start an HTTP download """
2235         if isinstance(req, compat_basestring):
2236             req = sanitized_Request(req)
2237         return self._opener.open(req, timeout=self._socket_timeout)
2238
2239     def print_debug_header(self):
2240         if not self.params.get('verbose'):
2241             return
2242
2243         if type('') is not compat_str:
2244             # Python 2.6 on SLES11 SP1 (https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/3326)
2245             self.report_warning(
2246                 'Your Python is broken! Update to a newer and supported version')
2247
2248         stdout_encoding = getattr(
2249             sys.stdout, 'encoding', 'missing (%s)' % type(sys.stdout).__name__)
2250         encoding_str = (
2251             '[debug] Encodings: locale %s, fs %s, out %s, pref %s\n' % (
2252                 locale.getpreferredencoding(),
2253                 sys.getfilesystemencoding(),
2254                 stdout_encoding,
2255                 self.get_encoding()))
2256         write_string(encoding_str, encoding=None)
2257
2258         self._write_string('[debug] youtube-dl version ' + __version__ + '\n')
2259         if _LAZY_LOADER:
2260             self._write_string('[debug] Lazy loading extractors enabled' + '\n')
2261         try:
2262             sp = subprocess.Popen(
2263                 ['git', 'rev-parse', '--short', 'HEAD'],
2264                 stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE,
2265                 cwd=os.path.dirname(os.path.abspath(__file__)))
2266             out, err = sp.communicate()
2267             out = out.decode().strip()
2268             if re.match('[0-9a-f]+', out):
2269                 self._write_string('[debug] Git HEAD: ' + out + '\n')
2270         except Exception:
2271             try:
2272                 sys.exc_clear()
2273             except Exception:
2274                 pass
2275
2276         def python_implementation():
2277             impl_name = platform.python_implementation()
2278             if impl_name == 'PyPy' and hasattr(sys, 'pypy_version_info'):
2279                 return impl_name + ' version %d.%d.%d' % sys.pypy_version_info[:3]
2280             return impl_name
2281
2282         self._write_string('[debug] Python version %s (%s) - %s\n' % (
2283             platform.python_version(), python_implementation(),
2284             platform_name()))
2285
2286         exe_versions = FFmpegPostProcessor.get_versions(self)
2287         exe_versions['rtmpdump'] = rtmpdump_version()
2288         exe_versions['phantomjs'] = PhantomJSwrapper._version()
2289         exe_str = ', '.join(
2290             '%s %s' % (exe, v)
2291             for exe, v in sorted(exe_versions.items())
2292             if v
2293         )
2294         if not exe_str:
2295             exe_str = 'none'
2296         self._write_string('[debug] exe versions: %s\n' % exe_str)
2297
2298         proxy_map = {}
2299         for handler in self._opener.handlers:
2300             if hasattr(handler, 'proxies'):
2301                 proxy_map.update(handler.proxies)
2302         self._write_string('[debug] Proxy map: ' + compat_str(proxy_map) + '\n')
2303
2304         if self.params.get('call_home', False):
2305             ipaddr = self.urlopen('https://yt-dl.org/ip').read().decode('utf-8')
2306             self._write_string('[debug] Public IP address: %s\n' % ipaddr)
2307             latest_version = self.urlopen(
2308                 'https://yt-dl.org/latest/version').read().decode('utf-8')
2309             if version_tuple(latest_version) > version_tuple(__version__):
2310                 self.report_warning(
2311                     'You are using an outdated version (newest version: %s)! '
2312                     'See https://yt-dl.org/update if you need help updating.' %
2313                     latest_version)
2314
2315     def _setup_opener(self):
2316         timeout_val = self.params.get('socket_timeout')
2317         self._socket_timeout = 600 if timeout_val is None else float(timeout_val)
2318
2319         opts_cookiefile = self.params.get('cookiefile')
2320         opts_proxy = self.params.get('proxy')
2321
2322         if opts_cookiefile is None:
2323             self.cookiejar = compat_cookiejar.CookieJar()
2324         else:
2325             opts_cookiefile = expand_path(opts_cookiefile)
2326             self.cookiejar = YoutubeDLCookieJar(opts_cookiefile)
2327             if os.access(opts_cookiefile, os.R_OK):
2328                 self.cookiejar.load(ignore_discard=True, ignore_expires=True)
2329
2330         cookie_processor = YoutubeDLCookieProcessor(self.cookiejar)
2331         if opts_proxy is not None:
2332             if opts_proxy == '':
2333                 proxies = {}
2334             else:
2335                 proxies = {'http': opts_proxy, 'https': opts_proxy}
2336         else:
2337             proxies = compat_urllib_request.getproxies()
2338             # Set HTTPS proxy to HTTP one if given (https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/805)
2339             if 'http' in proxies and 'https' not in proxies:
2340                 proxies['https'] = proxies['http']
2341         proxy_handler = PerRequestProxyHandler(proxies)
2342
2343         debuglevel = 1 if self.params.get('debug_printtraffic') else 0
2344         https_handler = make_HTTPS_handler(self.params, debuglevel=debuglevel)
2345         ydlh = YoutubeDLHandler(self.params, debuglevel=debuglevel)
2346         data_handler = compat_urllib_request_DataHandler()
2347
2348         # When passing our own FileHandler instance, build_opener won't add the
2349         # default FileHandler and allows us to disable the file protocol, which
2350         # can be used for malicious purposes (see
2351         # https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/8227)
2352         file_handler = compat_urllib_request.FileHandler()
2353
2354         def file_open(*args, **kwargs):
2355             raise compat_urllib_error.URLError('file:// scheme is explicitly disabled in youtube-dl for security reasons')
2356         file_handler.file_open = file_open
2357
2358         opener = compat_urllib_request.build_opener(
2359             proxy_handler, https_handler, cookie_processor, ydlh, data_handler, file_handler)
2360
2361         # Delete the default user-agent header, which would otherwise apply in
2362         # cases where our custom HTTP handler doesn't come into play
2363         # (See https://github.com/ytdl-org/youtube-dl/issues/1309 for details)
2364         opener.addheaders = []
2365         self._opener = opener
2366
2367     def encode(self, s):
2368         if isinstance(s, bytes):
2369             return s  # Already encoded
2370
2371         try:
2372             return s.encode(self.get_encoding())
2373         except UnicodeEncodeError as err:
2374             err.reason = err.reason + '. Check your system encoding configuration or use the --encoding option.'
2375             raise
2376
2377     def get_encoding(self):
2378         encoding = self.params.get('encoding')
2379         if encoding is None:
2380             encoding = preferredencoding()
2381         return encoding
2382
2383     def _write_thumbnails(self, info_dict, filename):
2384         if self.params.get('writethumbnail', False):
2385             thumbnails = info_dict.get('thumbnails')
2386             if thumbnails:
2387                 thumbnails = [thumbnails[-1]]
2388         elif self.params.get('write_all_thumbnails', False):
2389             thumbnails = info_dict.get('thumbnails')
2390         else:
2391             return
2392
2393         if not thumbnails:
2394             # No thumbnails present, so return immediately
2395             return
2396
2397         for t in thumbnails:
2398             thumb_ext = determine_ext(t['url'], 'jpg')
2399             suffix = '_%s' % t['id'] if len(thumbnails) > 1 else ''
2400             thumb_display_id = '%s ' % t['id'] if len(thumbnails) > 1 else ''
2401             t['filename'] = thumb_filename = os.path.splitext(filename)[0] + suffix + '.' + thumb_ext
2402
2403             if self.params.get('nooverwrites', False) and os.path.exists(encodeFilename(thumb_filename)):
2404                 self.to_screen('[%s] %s: Thumbnail %sis already present' %
2405                                (info_dict['extractor'], info_dict['id'], thumb_display_id))
2406             else:
2407                 self.to_screen('[%s] %s: Downloading thumbnail %s...' %
2408                                (info_dict['extractor'], info_dict['id'], thumb_display_id))
2409                 try:
2410                     uf = self.urlopen(t['url'])
2411                     with open(encodeFilename(thumb_filename), 'wb') as thumbf:
2412                         shutil.copyfileobj(uf, thumbf)
2413                     self.to_screen('[%s] %s: Writing thumbnail %sto: %s' %
2414                                    (info_dict['extractor'], info_dict['id'], thumb_display_id, thumb_filename))
2415                 except (compat_urllib_error.URLError, compat_http_client.HTTPException, socket.error) as err:
2416                     self.report_warning('Unable to download thumbnail "%s": %s' %
2417                                         (t['url'], error_to_compat_str(err)))